Thursday, 27 June 2013

In Copenhagen the number of journeys by bike grew by 50% between 1995 - 2010 yet the risk of cycle casualties dropped four-fold in the same period. In the UK cycle casualties are spiralling out of control and (except for in London) the bicycle is being ignored as a serious transport choice for millions.

Putney Bridge. This is what Transport for London
thinks counts for cycle infrastructure. No wonder
everyone's dressed in lycra and on bikes designed
for maximum speed
Earlier today, Transport for London released figures showing the total number of people seriously injured or killed on bikes on London's roads last year was up 60% (yes, 60%) on the long term average 2005 - 2009.

Across the UK as a whole, the risk of serious injury on a bike grew 5%, faster than the growth in bike use. 
This puts well and truly paid to the idea that more cyclists on the roads = safer roads.

Yet, in other countries where cycling has increased, the rate of people killed or injured on bikes has decreased. Why is the UK bucking that trend?

It's pretty obvious really. The London Assembly (the body which scrutinises London's Mayor Boris Johnson) said it pretty clearly last year: "In the last four years TfL has spent more money than before on cycle infrastructure.... but the budget has not been spent on the type of cycling facilities that maximise safety for vulnerable road users." The same is true in other towns and cities around the country: Money which should have gone into creating safe networks for people to cycle, has instead gone into things like Boris bikes, into PR and into 'active travel plans', whatever those are.

The London numbers are part of a UK-wide trend. As RoSPA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents) has at last pointed out, road deaths and serious injuries are down across the country, unless you're on a bike. It is good to see that RoSPA has now joined the call for a "coherent safe network for cyclists" although concerning they seem to think that network should be along canals and rivers.

In the UK as a whole, the number of people killed cycling increased 10% last year and serious casualties were up as well. The Department for Transport acknowledged today that "There is a well-established upward trend in pedal cyclist casualties; this is eighth year that the number of seriously injured cyclist casualties has increased."

Some money secured for investment in cycling in London. Live
outside London, though, and things are looking worse, not better
Actually, if you look at the London data, the numbers are bad for pedestrians as well: a 15% increase in the number of pedestrians seriously injured / killed vs last year (although slightly lower than the longer term trend).

If you're in a motor vehicle, though, things are getting rosier - a 53% reduction in serious injuries and people killed in cars against the long term trend; a 52% decrease in other motor vehicles. That compares with a 60% increase against the long term trend for people on bikes.

Yet, road safety is getting much better if you're in a motor vehicle. It is getting alarmingly worse if you're on a bike. And yet, in other countries, the exact opposite has happened.: Road safety has got better for motor vehicle users AND for bicycle users. As the number of people cycling has increased in cities like Copenhagen, the number of road casualties decreased. And that's down to a whole host of interventions, most of which are lacking in the UK: better cycle networks, slower motor traffic speeds; changes in legislation etc.

Here's London's Olympic Park this week. Cycling and walking legacy
in action. Pic courtesy Ross Lydall
So what should happen on the very same day that the government publishes appalling casualty trends? The government has announced an multi-decade investment plan for UK infrastructure that is entirely about improving capacity for private motor transport only (bye bye bus subsidies). In the entire 82 page document on national infrastructure released today, the government spends 33 pages talking about investment in roads. There is not a single mention of cycling anywhere in the national infrastructure strategy. As BikeBiz magazine points out, the government has been ultra clear about what personal transport is going to look like in this country for the rest of most of our lives when it boasts about investment in roads and in making the Highways Agency able to deliver "the best possible road network for the UK's motorists". Talk about playing to the status quo.

There is one tiny glimmer of hope. The Chancellor's Spending Review did include enough money for Transport for London to go ahead with its plans to invest in the network of cycle routes announced in Boris Johnson's game-changer network of cycling quietways and new Cycle Highways through London. Phew.

Cyclists as % of people seriously injured or killed in London.
Pic courtesy of @geographyjim
In related news, Transport for London also confirmed today that the Mayor of London "will be writing to the Secretary of State with a list of more than 20 detailed requests to the Government and the EU for new powers to make the roads safer for cyclists and pedestrians. These include: the power for TfL, rather than the police, to enforce mandatory bike lanes and bicycle advanced stop boxes at traffic lights; the ability to install cycle-specific traffic lights; the ability to make improvements to pedestrian and cyclist crossings; changes to the HGV and standard driving tests; and the power to require key safety modifications on heavy lorries."

If London can act as a catalyst for changes in the rest of the country, that's a good thing, in my view. But none of this feels like it's moving fast enough, and almost not at all if you're outside London.

Monday, 24 June 2013

Boris Johnson's cycling commissioner: "Cyclists may make up 24 per cent of the traffic across central London, but they still get much less than 24 per cent of policy-makers’ attention". That's no longer good enough.

Blackfriars Road - new 'vision' from Southwark Council. Where's the bike infrastructure on this massive avenue? There isn't any. 
Earlier today, the Evening Standard published new data from Transport for London that shows a massive boom in the number of people cycling. In 2011, the number of people cycling over Blackfriars Bridge made up 33% of all vehicles. Now, according to TfL, bikes are 42% of all vehicles on the bridge in the morning rush hour. Those numbers represent 15% of all people going through the junctions at either end of the Bridge. Interestingly, those 42% of vehicles only take up 12% of the vehicle space on the Bridge.

The numbers are impressive. On major commuter routes, bicycles are now THE dominant vehicle by far with bicycles making up 64% of all traffic on Theobolds Road coming in to the West End from Islington and Hackney and make up 57% of all vehicles on Kennington Park Road (the blue painted Cycle Super Highway 7 route in to the City of London from Clapham).

During the morning peak, 24% of all vehicles inside the congestion charge are bicycles. Average that out across an entire 24 hours and you get 16% of all vehicles. Those are pretty impressive statistics.

What these numbers show, in my view, is that it is now time for London to take the bicycle seriously.

What that means is that developers and local authorities need to plan for the bike. Pictured above is the latest plan from Southwark Council that shows how it intends to redevelop Blackfriars Road, just south of Blackfriars Bridge. If you look carefully, you can see a tiny painted blue line for some bikes. Other than that, what you get is wide pavements and lots of shops. Happy developers get tonnes of new pavement space and better yields on their new buildings. If this image is to be believed, cycling gets pretty much nothing at all. This, despite the fact there is a desperate need for proper space for cycling along this massively wide, empty and desolate road.

What Southwark council could be doing at Blackfriars Road but isn't. This example from the New York City Department of Transportation

Compare that with cities all around the world where there is meaningful progress on building proper bike infrastructure. Pictured above, an image from New York City's Department of Transportation that shows one of the city's many protected bike tracks. What the image also shows is the boost to road safety these lanes have generated. They have also massively boosted retail sales along the route. Get that? Bike lanes = better retail sales.

To be fair to Southwark, its planning document for Blackfriars Road does spell out that the council and Transport for London need to work together and "make it easier to get around by walking and cycling" on this road. (You can download the detailed planning guidelines from  Southwark's website). However, Southwark is ambiguous about what that might mean in practice. A supplementary document indicates the council might be proposing something more meaningful than blue paint, however: "The generous road width along Blackfriars Road means there is space for all users. Drivers, cyclists and pedestrians’ needs can be satisfied without compromising each other." I have to hope that means more than the tiny strip of blue paint suggested in the architect's image that accompanies the detailed plans.
What Blackfriars Road should look like but isn't planned to look like. Many thanks to Alternative Department for Transport

Key issues that the Evening Standard didn't address is that the cycling boom in central London - despite the fact that the headline numbers are hugely impressive - is still very much confined to office worker-only rush hour times, and that cyclists in London are still disproportionately young and male and fit.

Cycling is clearly a hugely efficient way of getting people around inner London (second only to buses, as it happens) and is equally cost-effective. And yet, too many councils seem to think that promoting half-baked plans are going to get more people cycling. They're not. If we want London's roads to work more efficiently, we're going to need to create conditions for everyone to get on a bike at any time of day, not just at rush hour and not just those of us brave and fast enough to fling ourselves down fast roads that are optimised for motor vehicles.

It's time to create conditions that optimise cost-effective, more efficient use of road space in London. That means creating space on our roads for the whole range of Londoners to get on a bike. If the plan for Blackfriars Road really is just some blue paint, then that really isn't anywhere near good enough any more.

As Boris Johnson's cycling commissioner Andrew Gilligan said today: "Cyclists may make up 24 per cent of the traffic across central London, but they still get much less than 24 per cent of policy-makers’ attention". That's not good enough any longer. 

Thursday, 20 June 2013

Every so often, it's time to remember why we get on our bikes again and again. Well done Halfords.

I almost never flag corporate or media stuff on this blog. But this video, first posted by Mark over at ibikelondon has had me grinning all day.

Every so often, it's time to remember that although things are by no means ideal for cycling in this country, there's a reason we all get on our bikes. And there's a reason we keep getting on our bikes, even when the government, the local authorities and the court system let us down again and again. Somehow, this video kind of captures that reason for me. I hope it does the same for you too.

Well done to Halfords for commissioning this piece for bikeweek. 

Wednesday, 19 June 2013

Please come to the City of London Cycling Forum after work on Tuesday, 2 July - some big topics to thrash out with City officials: Aldgate, two-way contraflows, Holborn Circus, road narrowing schemes

Good stuff from the City of London. Stonecutter Street used to
be a taxi rat run. Now bikes and pedestrians only. 
The City of London will be hosting a Cycling Forum on Tuesday 2 July 2013 and invitation is open to anyone who would like to attend and who has constructive comments to make about cycling in the City of London.

The event is hosted by the City of London and will take place at the Green Box Community Hall, 14–16 Little Somerset Street, E1 8AH. It will commence with light refreshments from 5.30 p.m., with formal business starting at 6.00 p.m. and will conclude at around 8.00 p.m.

If you read this blog and car about the future of cycling in the City of London, please please make an effort to attend. It's a really good opportunity to raise issues and make your voice heard. As I mention above, there's no need to RSVP, just come along on the night.

The agenda for the evening contains three elements: Aldgate gyratory proposals; the City's response to the Mayor's Vision for Cycling in London;  and cycling questions and answers from the floor.

I thought it would be useful to give my own potted summary of things that I think are going well and going less well in the Square Mile.

Aldgate gyratory

Entrance to the City of London off Aldgate
gyratory. Narrower roads and new pinch points
coming soon?
Firstly, let me start with things that aren't going so well. And top of that list is the plan for the removal of Aldgate gyratory. I first previewed the plans for Aldgate back in April. Firstly, it's important to note that I think it's brilliant the City is going ahead and removing this horrible gyratory system. It's horrible on foot and horrible on a bike. The City has amended the original plans quite considerably since I reviewed them in April but they're still not good enough. The real bugbear is that the City is proposing to spend tens of millions to narrow the road at several points creating really serious pinch points for cyclists who will have to merge into narrow lanes with the masses of rush-hour coaches and heavy goods vehicles that drive through this area. Of particular note are two elements: a) the police check pinch point where bikes, coaches, lorries and taxis will be funnelled into one narrow lane shared by all just as you enter the City of London and b) the way the carriageway is going to ebb and flow (a bit like the truly awful Southwark Street) so that one minute you have clear space for cycling, the next you find yourself having to shove yourself in front of a long distance express coach. The pavements will be made excessively wide at points for no real benefit to anyone.

You can review the earlier plans at Aldgate and make your own mind up but I although I agree that the City has made some positives changes to its original plan, I still think both of these factors need addressing. And they need proper solutions, not more tinkering.

Road narrowing

Enjoy cycling on the narrow lane that has
been created the length of Cheapside? 
There's been some welcome news at Bank junction, one of the worst danger spots in the Square Mile where the City has come up with some impressive plans for the area and ways to make it function better for the vast majority of people who use it (who are on foot, on bike or in buses and definitely not in private cars and vans). There is much much discussion, however, about whether some streets around Bank (and elsewhere in the City) should be narrowed to create wider pavements. This would have the effect of turning very many roads into Cheapside-style environments: massively wide pavements and narrow road lanes. So narrow in fact that when the traffic is flowing, motor vehicles brush past you with inches to spare and when the traffic is at a standstill, you simply can't cycle as there's nowhere to go. You just have to sit behind a bus and breath in the fumes. The City has now formally acknowledged that narrowing roads to the same extent as Cheapside is not going to encourage people to cycle.

Some of the original plans are truly awful. The plans over at Leadenhall Street would have made this route unusable on a bike and the City even expressed an utterly unacceptable desire to "encourage" people to cycle through "quieter routes" in Hackney and Islington rather than through the Square mile at one point. That statement has not been formally reversed but the City has at least formally acknowledged "cyclists do not want narrower carriageways they feel this would impact on their safety". We need to be doubly sure that excessive road narrowing such as at Cheapside doesn't creep in on any of the very many road schemes planned all around the Square Mile.

Contraflow cycling

Contraflows for cycling now dotted all over the Square Mile
One area where the City of London deserves an absolute tonne of praise is in its policy of opening two-way cycling on previously one-way streets. The City has now opened up a whopping 50 contraflow cycling streets all across the Square Mile with a further 10 being added over the summer. The City reckons that cycling has increased at least 60% on these streets but there has been zero increase in road casualties.

This has made whole areas of the Square Mile massively easier and safer to get about by  bike. Areas around Fenchurch Street station and north of Cheapside are now pretty much all two-way for cycling and you can take safer, easier and often quicker routes by bike that were unimaginable a couple of years ago. The City of London jointly won a London Cycling Campaign award for this scheme and I think it's a fantastic, low-cost but high impact scheme that's had brilliant results.

Beech Street

Beech Street tunnel - formerly two general traffic lanes
now one for bikes and one for motors
One scheme that gets very little press but which I think has had a huge impact on cycling is Beech Street tunnel. This tunnel runs under the Barbican and until a year ago consisted of two westbound lanes. It now consists of one westbound lane for general traffic and one for bicycle traffic. The bike lane runs all the way up the junction at Barbican tube. The City rescheduled all of the traffic lights at the junction with the result that it is better for people crossing the road, there are fewer queues of motor vehicles in the tunnel at rush hour and it is now a significantly safer and easier route for cycling than it has ever been in the past.

Holborn Circus

Holborn Circus scheme going ahead this summer. Details on the scheme
from the City of London
And one other massive scheme to mention is Holborn Circus. This scheme is being implemented this summer and you can see the details here. It is by no means brilliant. It introduces longer and wider bike feeder lanes into the junction which is good, although not brilliant. And it preserves some sort of two-way cycling down Hatton Gardens (which will become one way for motor vehicles) but with a horribly fiddly shared pavement mishmash that is going to be difficult to use and (I suspect) will be impractical for the volume of people who need to cycle through this way in the mornings. That section of the scheme is technically in Camden and was worked up with the Camden folk. You can see details of the Holborn scheme here and my initial review back in 2011. As far as cycling is concerned, I have a strong feeling that the scheme will need an upgrade pretty soon after it's built.

Please come along on Tuesday 2 July. All these points are up for discussion and they need people to come who can talk about them in a constructive way and help the officials and politicians in the Square Mile up their game to become a better place for safe, sensible, easy-for-everyone cycling.

Tuesday, 11 June 2013

Overwhelming support for bike tracks rather than shared bus lanes; Transport for London publishes much improved plans for Cycle Super Highway 5 (Victoria to Lewisham)

Vauxhall Bridge morning rush hour. Mornings, northbound
is busy and southbound very quiet (as pictured.
In the evening the southbound is busy,
northbound more or less quiet. 
Earlier this week, Transport for London published the results of its consultation exercise on Cycle Super Highway 5 and announced some fairly chunky changes to the original proposal.

In summary, the plan is now as follows:
  • New Cross Gate to Oval will be delivered more or less as planned by this autumn. 
  • Next year, that original section of the route will be upgraded and 70% of the bus and mandatory cycle lanes will be “semi-segregated” from the general traffic using cats’ eyes, rumble strips, traffic wands etc
  • Also during 2014, TfL will build the section from Oval to central London
  • And by end of 2015, it will upgrade the junction at Oval (with a fairly weedy interim solution in the meantime)
TfL also confirmed it is considering a Quietway route that will run parallel to this main road route and that it is exploring options to extend Super Highway 5 to Lewisham. 

All in all, I think this is a marked improvement on the original plans. Provided, of course, it all goes ahead. Planning for this Super Highway has been rumbling on since 2011 when the first (extremely poor quality) designs were drawn up.

My sense from this latest document is that there is still quite a lot more work to be done before Super Highway 5 becomes reality and that there are a number of sticking points. It's pretty clear that there's still some debate going on about how the Cycle Highway will cut through Vauxhall gyratory. I'm genuinely surprised that Transport for London has claimed that the new business improvement district VauxhallOne "has withdrawn support" for the cycle tracks through Vauxhall. I asked VauxhallOne if that was indeed the case. Their executive director Giles Semper told me "I hope it is clear that we did not set out to oppose the Superhighway in itself – rather, we welcomed it – but that we felt we needed to point out some fundamental flaws with the route design". So it seems very strange that TfL chose to represent the views of VauxhallOne as having 'withdrawn support' for the cycle highway. You can see VauxhallOne's detailed response here and make your own mind up. I think they are fairly clearly backing the cycle highway but with some requests to review elements of it. 

The heart of Vauxhall is currently a one-way three lane
motorway. Plan is to build a cycle track
down the left hand side of this picture
I'm also surprised that TfL has flagged concerns by local residents on Harleyford Road (the three lane one-way sprint from Oval to Vauxhall) concerned that a cycle track here would "cause conflict between pedestrians and cyclists and would make it difficult for them to park outside their property.". Firstly: the pavement here is horribly narrow and leads straight on to a race track of cars and the cycle track is a clear improvement. Secondly: residents can't park here anyhow (and no-one does park here) except for at weekends.

TfL presented two options on Vauxhall Bridge itself - either a cycle track over the bridge or to create a southbound bus and bike lane, to replace the existing and horribly narrow advisory bike lane. I was intrigued to see that 51% of people supported the cycle track option including, believe it or not, the Licensed Taxi Drivers Association. Only 21% supported the bus / bike lane, among them, the London Cycling Campaign. That throws up an interesting challenge given that most people want to cycle on cycle tracks and don't support the London Cycling Campaign's preferred option.My understanding is that the London Cycling Campaign position derives from the fact that the plans for the cycle tracks suggest the tracks might well be quite narrow and the LCC has concerns about whether people will really use them or not if they're too narrow.

Believe it or not, this is the London Cycle Network route 3 to Clapham.
Can you spot it? You're meant to swing
across four lanes of traffic into the little archway on the right. Insane.
There will also be some immediate improvements to London Cycle Network route 3, which runs from Waterloo to Clapham Common with a vastly improved turning off Kennington Oval into Meadow Road, to connect cyclists with the very popular quiet routes north and south of the Oval. At the moment people have to turn right in the middle of four lanes of traffic, between two very fast blind corners if they want to access the quiet routes south of this road.

Coming soon along the route to New Cross? 'Armadillos' in action
in Barcelona. Courtesy Camden Cyclists
Further along the route, there are a number of improvements to the original plans with a lot more mandatory cycle lane and, in many cases, slightly widened cycle lane. There will also be more bus lanes along this section. As mentioned above, these sections will initially consist of some white lanes and not much more but will become "semi-segregated" from next year, in the form of 'armadillos' or similar sorts of lane separators. This is a very interesting new development that has required Department for Transport approval. Another improvement will be the implementation of seven metre deep advanced stop lines (i.e. double the current depth), again, subsequent to Department for Transport approval.

Less encouragingly, there are significant number of sections where people will be expected to follow "route logos to encourage cyclists to adopt a central riding position for this short stretch of road". This will be the case at Oval junction for the next two years until TfL can come up with a safer way to navigate people through this mess. As Rachel Aldred puts it in her blog, the 'route logos' don't sound so great when you change the phrasing slightly and read it instead as: "Route logos will encourage your children to adopt a central riding position (jostling with the buses and lorries and impatient white van drivers)....". Doesn't sound so good, does it?

Still, my sense is that the plans are, for the most part, an improvement on the original consultation. I'm impressed by the fact that TfL has clearly sought and won Department for Transport approval for things like deeper advanced stop lines and I'm impressed by the plans to upgrade the route in stages, which seems sensible. I'm concerned that section between Oval and central London still feels like it's hanging in the balance, though and I think parts of the route through Camberwell are still pretty poor to be honest.

As a reminder, here's what the section from central London to Vauxhall looks like at the moment, with thanks to Croydon Cyclist cyclegaz

And if that's not bad enough, here's a part of Oval junction (the Cycle Highway 7 part) as it stands at the moment. This will soon be the meeting point of two Cycle Super Highways. You can read more about this shocking incident (which is sadly all too typical in this road layout) here. 

Tuesday, 4 June 2013

A brand new bike track - blocked entirely by a parking meter: The Tower Hamlets teams responsible for this waste of taxpayer money could have done this so well by copying proven solutions. Instead they reinvented the rules and got it horribly wrong.

Just look at this. It's simply unbelievable. This slide show was made by Alex King who quite rightly calls it a 'new contender for the worst bike lane in London'. Acutually, it's worse than that. This bike track was built only weeks ago and it is an utter scandal.

Sofoklis Kostoulas - killed cycling on
Bethnal GreenRoad last year
Before we look at the details of the scheme itself, let's just look at the location. This is Bethnal Green Road - an extremely busy route for people travelling by bike and packed with buses, lorries, vans and cars. It's a nasty place to cycle but a critical link between the City of London and the various hubs in Hackney and the rest of Tower Hamlets where more people now cycle to work than drive to work. You'd think that Tower Hamlets might realise that if it's going to tinker with an important bike link, it has to get it right. It has known from the outset that this scheme is insane. Tower Hamlets Wheelers, the local group of the London Cycling Campaign, warned the council in the planning stages that this scheme was a "waste of money" and that it was "unclear who was meant to be benefiting" from the work. 

What makes this worse is that the road is a known danger hotspot. Last year, actor Sofoklis Kostoulas was killed further along this road in a collision with a lorry. The collision took place at a pinch point where the council has chosen to put cyclists between parked cars and a traffic island that is not wide enough for a lorry to pass a person on a bicycle.

The crazy design in detail. Courtesy Tower Hamlets Wheelers
With so many people using this route and the clear evidence that the road needs to made safer to cycle along, Tower Hamlets has absolutely no excuse to get this wrong. As my good pal Mark Ames of ibikelondon blog pointed out earlier this year "the planners and designers here have tried to do right by the bicycle; they're installing some separated cycle paths that run along the inside of parked cars".

But, as ibikelondon quite correctly says "there simply isn't room enough for wider pavements, two separated cycle lanes, two lanes of traffic and two rows of parking.  The cycle tracks being built are woefully inadequate; narrow, within the dooring zone of the parked cars, and ridiculously short before they spit you back in to the road from behind some parking."

What Tower Hamlets could have built. Bike track in
Brighton with priority over side roads AND no
parking meters taking up the whole track
Actually, now the thing has been built, it's even worse than that. There's a sodding great parking meter taking up the entire bike track at one point. Just imagine if the council had built a new road and installed a bike parking lot across the entire road. "Drivers" (and by the way, I'm a driver too but I also use a bicycle for most of my London trips) would be outraged and heads would roll.

What's worse is that the road itself is now so narrow that if you don't want to use this dangerous cycle track (and, frankly, why would you?), you will find cycling on the main carriageway highly intimidating and more dangerous. What Tower Hamlets has done here is made a bad situation even worse for who knows what intention.

The bike track dumps you back onto the road
at a right angle, just as the road narrows
at a pinchpoint. This is insanely dangerous. 
The bike track itself is unbelievably narrow. It gives way to a side road but with no clarity about why or how. And it dumps you back on to the main carriageway at a right angle straight into a pinchpoint where the carriageway narrows as if to say that Tower Hamlets couldn't care less about your safety on the road.

To be fair, the real culprit here is the eastbound bike track. Westbound is definitely more usable and people are using it as intended. But this eastbound track is a scandal.

Frankly, heads should roll on this scheme. You can't get away with making conditions more dangerous for people on bikes any longer. What's more, why on earth should Londoners pay good tax money for utter junk like this scheme.

Tower Hamlets should rip this up and start again. Either create wide carriageways where there's enough room for bikes and heavy goods vehicles or create a proper bike track inside the parked cars, like they do in New York, the Netherlands, Germany, France, you name it.

Brighton's Old Shoreham Road has a bike track these days. It is wide, straight, has priority over side roads and, what's more, does not have a ridiculous parking meter taking up the entire lane. Your kids could use it. The exact opposite of what's been built on Bethnal Green Road.

Bike track and car parking in the Netherlands. Courtesy
AsEasyAsRidingABike blog
Tower Hamlets has tried to re-write the rule book here. It has tried to put cyclists out of the way of motor vehicles, which is good in theory. But as AsEasyAsRidingABike blog quite rightly says: "We don’t need ‘innovative’ solutions – just copy what works". Just look at the thousands of schemes that do this successfully and copy them, in other words. Don't create something that fails on every single count. 

Tower Hamlets deserves a serious rap over the knuckles and the councillors should be taken to task for their utter abuse of common sense